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Analgesic – Alleviation of musculoskeletal pain


In Persian Medicine, there exists records of use of compounds extracted from lavender leaves for various disorders. To evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of lavender, its hydro-alcoholic extract, polyphenolic compound and essential oil from its leaves were prepared and, for evaluation of its anti-inflammatory properties, writhing test for evaluation of pain induced by formalin and acetic acid for evaluation of its analgesic properties in mice and carrageenan test in rats were used. The results of this study confirmed the traditional use of lavender in treatment of painful and inflammatory diseases and recommend further studies for determining its active chemical constituents.(1)

In another study, the analgesic properties of mint, which is considered an analgesic agent in Traditional Medicine, was studied using hot plate method in male rats. Based on the results of this study, mint distillate has analgesic properties, and its efficacy rises with a rise in the administered dose (p<0.05) in a way that the analgesic effect of mint distillate begins at the dose of 27 mg/kg and reaches a peak at 60 mg/kg. Also, the analgesic effect of mint distillate is more than aspirin (p<0.05).(2)

To compare the effects of administration of rosemary essential oil in mouse paw edema induced by carrageenan and colitis induced by trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS), two weeks before the test, IRC mice received, through a standard laboratory diet, rosemary essential oil in three doses (1250, 2500 and 5000 ppm). Ingestion of 5000 ppm rosemary essential oil, first aggravated the paw edema after 2 hours, but alleviated the edema in the next 24 hours.(2)

In vitro, eucalyptus inhibits the synthesis of prostaglandin at a dose of 37μmol/l. In animal models, the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties of eucalyptus have been demonstrated. In patients with dermatitis concomitant with dryness and discharge, the anti-inflammatory properties of Eucalyptus radiata has been demonstrated, which is most probably due to inhibition of inflammation markers such as TND-alpha, COX enzymes, 5-lipooxygenase and other leukotrienes, and it can be used as an alternative for topical steroids.(4)

1,8-cineol (eucalyptol), which is the main phytoconstituent of eucalyptus, suppresses the metabolism of arachidonic acid and cytokine production in monocytes in human. In a study of the anti-inflammatory effects of 1,8-cineol, and its comparison with prednisolone in patients with steroid-related severe bronchial asthma, a 38% reduction of daily prednisolone was observed in the group receiving 1,8-cineol (in comparison to 7% in the placebo group).(5)


Essential oil of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia)

Essential oil of eucalyptus (Ecalyptus spp.)

Essential oil of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)

Essential oil of peppermint (Mentha pipperita)

Active Ingredients

menthol, 1,8-cineol